Tuesday, July 22, 2014

How People Learn Part 2

Do you know how people learn?


Part 2


Yesterday we went over the fundamentals of how people learn and a little bit about working memory and long-term memory.  Hope I did not make you fall asleep!

Today, we will go over the actual psychological processes of learning.  Sound fun, eh? Pardon my Canadian accent :)  Alright, let's get started!

Effective instructional and learning methods promote one or more of the psychological processes of learning and do not disrupt them.  It is important to design your lesson plan or class that is instructional sound without disruption. In order to achieve this, it is vital to understand the five processes of learning and their definitions. The five learning processes include
  1. Support attention
  2. Activate prior knowledge
  3. Manage cognitive load
  4. Promote rehearsal and encoding
  5. Practice retrieval

And let's take a closer look of each of these processes:
Process
Definition
Examples
Support attention
This helps learners focus attention to important elements in the instruction and minimizing divided attention.
·   Learning objectives
·   Pre-reading questions
·   Pre homework or assessment
Activate prior knowledge
New information that enters working memory must be integrated into preexisting mental models in long-term memory.  Good instruction helps bring those mental models into working memory by activating prior knowledge.
·   Reviewing prior lessons
·   Using analogies or comparisons between new content and pre-existing knowledge
·   Using introductory stories or questions
Manage cognitive load
This helps learners make the best use of their limited working memory resources for learning.
·   Breaking lesson content into small topics and chunks
·   Avoiding distracting and irrelevant visuals, stories and content
Promote rehearsal and encoding
New information that enters working memory must be rehearsed in order to be stored in long-term memory
·   Practice exercise
·   Pop quiz
·   Asking questions during class
Practice retrieval
New knowledge encoded into long-term memory must be brought back into working memory later when needed.  Retrieval is the psychological basis for transfer of learning
·   Practice working with the same system screens
·   Role-play exercises using scenarios
·   Use of case studies

If you look at the diagram I posted yesterday (shown below), you will find how knowledge is stored from introduction, working memory to long-term memory and how each process supports the memory systems.


What do you think?

If you find this article helpful, please share, +1 or like.  You can follow me on twitter @wetutoring1 or visit WE Tutoring Nation facebook page at https://www.facebook.com/wetutoringnation

Article and Image reference from ASTD Designing Learning program.

No comments:

Post a Comment